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Injury. 2018 Jan;49(1):117-123. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2017.11.028. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Hypothermia indices among severely injured trauma patients undergoing urgent surgery: A single-centred retrospective quality review and analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesia, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada; Trauma Emergency & Critical Care Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada. Electronic address: asim.alam@sunnybrook.ca.
2
Trauma Emergency & Critical Care Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada. Electronic address: rafael.olarte@sunnybrook.ca.
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Clinical Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: jeannie.callum@sunnybrook.ca.
4
Ornge - Ontario Air Ambulance, Canada. Electronic address: afatahi@ornge.ca.
5
Trauma Emergency & Critical Care Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada; Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: barto.nascimento@sunnybrook.ca.
6
Department of Anesthesia, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: claude.laflamme@sunnybrook.ca.
7
Department of Clinical Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: robert.cohen@mail.mcgill.ca.
8
Trauma Emergency & Critical Care Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada; Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: avery.nathens@sunnybrook.ca.
9
Trauma Emergency & Critical Care Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada; Ornge - Ontario Air Ambulance, Canada; Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: homer.tien@sunnybrook.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypothermia (<36°C) exacerbates trauma-induced coagulopathy and worsens morbidity and mortality among severely injured trauma patients; there is a paucity of published data describing how well trauma centres adhere to standards regarding measurement of temperature, and best practices for preventing and treating hypothermia.

METHODS:

We completed a retrospective quality audit of all severely injured trauma patients (Injury Severity Score (ISS≥20)) who had urgent surgery at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (SHSC) between 2010 and 2014. Information regarding temperature monitoring was evaluated over the course of the initial resuscitation and admission. Independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality were elucidated through a multivariable regression analysis.

RESULTS:

Out of a total of 4492 trauma patients, 495 were severely-injured and went to the operating room (OPR) after being treated in the trauma bay (TB) at SHSC between 2010 and 2014. The majority of the patients were male (n=384, 77.6%) and had a blunt mechanism of injury (n=391, 79.0%). The median ISS score was 29 (interquartile range (IQR) 26, 35). Eighty-nine (17.9%) patients died; 26 (5.2%) of these patients died intra-operatively. Less than one fifth of patients (n=82,16.6%) received a temperature measurement during pre-hospital transport phase. Upon arrival to the TB, almost two-thirds (n=301, 60.8%) of patients had their temperature recorded and a similar proportion (n=175, 58.1%) of those patients were hypothermic (<36°C). In the OPR, close to 80% (n=389, 78.6%) of patients had their temperature measured on both arrival; almost 60% (n=223, 57.3%) were hypothermic on arrival. Almost all patients had their temperature measured upon arrival to the ICU or specialized ward (n=450, 98.3%). Warming initiatives were documented in only 36 (7.3%) patients in the TB, yet documented in almost all patients in OR (n=464, 93.7%). An increased risk of in-hospital mortality was correlated with not taking a temperature measurement in the TB (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.86 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.64-4.99]) or OPR (OR 4.66 (95% CI [2.50-8.69]).

CONCLUSIONS:

A majority of severely injured trauma patients are hypothermic well into the perioperative period after initial admission. An absence of having temperature measurement during initial hospitalization is associated with increased in-hospital mortality amongst this patient group. Quality improvement initiatives should aim to strive for ongoing temperature measurement as a key performance indicator and early prevention and treatment of hypothermia during initial resuscitation.

KEYWORDS:

Hypothermia; Management; Pre-hospital; Quality indicators; Trauma

PMID:
29183635
DOI:
10.1016/j.injury.2017.11.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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