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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Dec 12;114(50):13242-13247. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1710433114. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Broad detection of bacterial type III secretion system and flagellin proteins by the human NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
3
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104; sunshin@pennmedicine.upenn.edu.

Abstract

Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that initiate host defense against bacterial pathogens by activating caspase-1-dependent cytokine secretion and cell death. In mice, specific nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) activate the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome upon sensing components of the type III secretion system (T3SS) and flagellar apparatus. NAIP1 recognizes the T3SS needle protein, NAIP2 recognizes the T3SS inner rod protein, and NAIP5 and NAIP6 recognize flagellin. In contrast, humans encode a single functional NAIP, raising the question of whether human NAIP senses one or multiple bacterial ligands. Previous studies found that human NAIP detects both flagellin and the T3SS needle protein and suggested that the ability to detect both ligands was achieved by multiple isoforms encoded by the single human NAIP gene. Here, we show that human NAIP also senses the Salmonella Typhimurium T3SS inner rod protein PrgJ and that T3SS inner rod proteins from multiple bacterial species are also detected. Furthermore, we show that a single human NAIP isoform is capable of sensing the T3SS inner rod, needle, and flagellin. Our findings indicate that, in contrast to murine NAIPs, promiscuous recognition of multiple bacterial ligands is conferred by a single human NAIP.

KEYWORDS:

NAIP; NLRC4; flagellin; inflammasome; type III secretion system

PMID:
29180436
PMCID:
PMC5740664
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1710433114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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