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Br J Nutr. 2017 Dec;118(12):1043-1051. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517003038. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

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1Department of Nutritional Sciences,University of Connecticut,3624 Horsebarn Road Extension,Unit 4017,Storrs,CT 06269,USA.
2Department of Food Science,University of Wisconsin-Madison,1605 Linden Drive,Madison,WI 53706,USA.
3Human Nutrition Program,The Ohio State University,1787 Neil Avenue,Columbus,OH 43210,USA.
4Department of Dairy Science,University of Wisconsin-Madison,1675 Observatory Drive,Madison,WI 53706,USA.
5School of Pharmacy,University of Wisconsin-Madison,777 Highland Avenue,Madison,WI 53705,USA.


The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5-27 and 30-40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.


2-AG 2-arachidonoylglycerol; AEA anandamide; CO control obese; IgM EndoCAb IgM endotoxin-core antibody; LBP lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; LPS lipopolysaccharide; TLR4 Toll-like receptor 4; YN yogurt non-obese; YO yogurt obese; sCD14 soluble CD14; Chronic inflammation; Dairy products; Endotoxin exposure; Low-fat yogurt; Obesity

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