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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 Jan 1;182:86-92. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.10.011. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Increasing methamphetamine injection among non-MSM who inject drugs in King County, Washington.

Author information

1
Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, SLU Building E, Box 358062, Seattle, WA, 98195, United States; HIV/STD Program, Public Health - Seattle and King County, 401 5th Ave, Suite 1250, Seattle, WA, 98104, United States. Electronic address: snglick@uw.edu.
2
HIV/STD Program, Public Health - Seattle and King County, 401 5th Ave, Suite 1250, Seattle, WA, 98104, United States.
3
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Health Sciences Building, F-262, Box 357236, Seattle, WA, 98195, United States.
4
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, 1107 NE 45th Street, Suite 120, Box 354805, Seattle, WA, 98105, United States.
5
Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, SLU Building E, Box 358062, Seattle, WA, 98195, United States; HIV/STD Program, Public Health - Seattle and King County, 401 5th Ave, Suite 1250, Seattle, WA, 98104, United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In King County, Washington, the HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) who inject methamphetamine is high, while it is low among other people who inject drugs (PWID). Local drug problem indicators suggest that methamphetamine use is increasing. The extent to which this increase affects MSM and non-MSM, and whether MSM and non-MSM networks are connected through injection equipment sharing, is unknown.

METHODS:

We used data from two serial cross-sectional surveys of PWID including five biannual surveys of Public Health-Seattle and King County Needle and Syringe Exchange Program clients (NSEP, N=2135, 2009-2017) and three National HIV Behavioral Surveillance IDU surveys (NHBS, N=1709, 2009-2015).

RESULTS:

The proportion of non-MSM PWID reporting any recent methamphetamine injection increased significantly from approximately 20% in 2009 to 65% in 2017. Most of this increase was attributable to injecting methamphetamine in combination with heroin (goofballs). PWID who injected goofballs were more likely to be younger, homeless or unstably housed, report daily injection, and self-report an opioid overdose in the past year than other PWID. The majority of PWID who injected methamphetamine reported sharing any injection equipment. Among these PWID, 43% of MSM had last shared injection equipment with a non-MSM. Eight percent of non-MSM men and 15% of women had last shared equipment with an MSM.

CONCLUSIONS:

Given non-trivial rates of sharing injection equipment with methamphetamine-using MSM, a population with an HIV prevalence of 40%, non-MSM who inject methamphetamine could be an emerging population at risk for acquiring HIV.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; Injection drug use; Men who have sex with men; Methamphetamine; Surveillance

PMID:
29175463
PMCID:
PMC6457905
DOI:
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.10.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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