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Pediatr Clin North Am. 2017 Dec;64(6):1355-1367. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2017.08.012. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Inhaled Drugs and Systemic Corticosteroids for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

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University of Zurich, University Hospital Zurich, Department of Neonatology, Frauenklinikstrasse 10, Zurich 8091, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Division of Paediatric Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, University of Basel Children's Hospital, Spitalstrasse 33, 4056 Basel, Switzerland; Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue NorthWest, Washington, DC 20010, USA.


All definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have limitations and a new definition for the purpose of clinical research, benchmarking, and prognostic prediction is needed. Different inhaled and systemic drugs are currently used to prevent or treat BPD. Despite some positive effects on BPD, more information about the effects of inhaled corticosteroids is required to assess overall efficacy and associated risks. One needs to balance the risks of neurodevelopmental impairment owing to systemic corticosteroids against those of BPD itself. Future studies should, therefore, focus on infants with a very high risk of developing BPD and include pharmacokinetics and long-term developmental outcomes.


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; Dexamethasone; Hydrocortisone; Inhaled bronchodilators; Inhaled corticosteroids; Pharmacology; Systemic corticosteroids

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