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Curr Drug Targets. 2017 Nov 22. doi: 10.2174/1389450118666171122141821. [Epub ahead of print]

Epigenetic mechanisms: Role in hematopoietic stem cell lineage commitment and differentiation.

Author information

1
Stem Cells and Haematological Disorders Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, (PO) Gachibowli, Hyderabad-500046 (TS). India.
2
GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530 045 (AP). India.

Abstract

Major breakthroughs in last several decades have contributed to our knowledge of the genetic regulation in development. Although epigenetics is not a new concept, unfortunately, the role of epigenetics has not come to fruition in large past. But the field of epigenetics has exploded within the past decade. Now, growing evidences show a complex network of epigenetic regulation in development. The epigenetic makeup of a cell, tissue or individual is much more complex than their genetic complement. Epigenetic modifications are more important for normal development by maintaining the gene expression pattern in tissue- and context- specific manner. Deregulation of epigenetic mechanism can lead to altered gene expression and its function, which results in altered tissue specific function of cells and malignant transformation. Epigenetic modifications directly shape haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) developmental cascades, including their maintenance of self-renewal and multilineage potential, lineage commitment, and aging. Hence, there is a growing admiration for epigenetic players and their regulatory function in haematopoiesis. Epigenetic Mechanisms underlying these modifications in mammalian genome are still not completely understood. This review mainly explains 3 key epigenetics mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs inference in hematopoietic lineage commitment and differentiation.

KEYWORDS:

DNA methylation; Epigenetics; hematopoietic stem cell; histones; miRNA

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