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Eur J Neurol. 2018 Feb;25(2):404-410. doi: 10.1111/ene.13521. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Translesional pressure gradient and leptomeningeal collateral status in symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis.

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Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China.
Shenzhen Research Institute, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, China.
Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China.
Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.
Neurovascular Imaging Research Core, Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.



Leptomeningeal collateral (LMC) status governs the prognosis of large artery occlusive stroke, although factors determining LMC status are not fully elucidated. The aim was to investigate metrics affecting LMC status in such patients by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models based on computed tomography angiography (CTA).


In this cross-sectional study, patients with recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack attributed to atherosclerotic M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis (50%-99%) were recruited. Demographic, clinical and imaging data of these patients were collected. Ipsilesional LMC status was graded as good or poor by assessing the laterality of anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in CTA. A CFD model based on CTA was constructed to reflect focal hemodynamics in the distal internal carotid artery, M1 MCA and A1 anterior cerebral artery. Pressure gradients were calculated across culprit MCA stenotic lesions in CFD models. Predictors for good LMC status were sought in univariate and multivariate analyses.


Amongst the 85 patients enrolled (mean age 61.5 ± 10.9 years), 38 (44.7%) had good ipsilesional LMC status. The mean pressure gradient across MCA lesions was 14.8 ± 18.1 mmHg. Advanced age (P = 0.030) and a larger translesional pressure gradient (P = 0.029) independently predicted good LMCs. A lower fasting blood glucose level also showed a trend for good LMCs (P = 0.058).


Our study suggested a correlation between translesional pressure gradient and maturation of LMCs in intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Further studies with more exquisite and dynamic monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics and LMC evolution are needed to verify the current findings.


CT angiography; arterial stenosis; cerebrovascular diseases; collateral circulation; computational fluid dynamics; stroke

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