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Clin Transplant. 2018 Jan;32(1). doi: 10.1111/ctr.13158. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

The prognostic significance of frailty compared to peak oxygen consumption and B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with advanced heart failure.

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Heart Failure and Heart Transplant Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
Ted Rogers Centre of Excellence in Heart Function, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Heart Failure and Heart Transplant Program, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.


Frailty assessment has become an integral part of the evaluation of potential candidates for heart transplantation and ventricular assist device (HTx/VAD). The impact of frailty, as a heart failure risk factor or to identify those who will derive the greatest benefit with HTx/VAD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent prognostic relevance of frailty assessment from peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 ) or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on mortality in patients referred for advanced heart failure therapies. Frailty was measured using modified Fried frailty criteria. In 201 consecutive patients, during a median follow-up of 17.5 months (IQR 11-29.2), there were 25 (12.4%) deaths. One-year survival was 100%, 94%, and 78% in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail patients, respectively (log rank P = .0001). Frailty was associated with a twofold increase risk of death (HR 2.01, P < .0001, 95% CI 1.42-2.84). When adjusted for BNP or peak VO2 , frailty was not associated with a significant risk of all-cause death. However, when peak VO2 is stratified into two categories (≥12 mL/kg/min vs <12 mL/kg/min), frailty was associated with increased mortality in patients with a lower peak VO2 (HR 1.72, P = .006).


B-type natriuretic peptide; Fried score; advanced heart failure therapy; cardiopulmonary study; frailty


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