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J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Dec 20;65(50):10907-10914. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03831. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Raspberry Ketone Reduced Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Cells and Ovariectomy-Induced Obesity in Wistar Rats by Regulating Autophagy Mechanisms.

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Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center , 114 Taipei, Taiwan.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center , 114 Taipei, Taiwan.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chi-Mei Medical Center , Tainan, Taiwan.
Department of Medicine, Taipei Medical University , 11031 Taipei, Taiwan.
Department of Sport Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science , 71710 Tainan, Taiwan.
Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center , Taipei, Taiwan.
Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center , 114 Taipei, Taiwan.
Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical Center , 114 Taipei, Taiwan.


This study aimed to determine the antiobesity effects of raspberry ketone (RK), one of the major aromatic compounds contained in raspberry, and its underlying mechanisms. During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). RK also reduced the expression of light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related protein 12 (Atg12), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and phosphorylated-tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), whereas it increased the level of p62 and phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Daily administration of RK decreased the body weight (ovariectomy [Ovx] + RK, 352.6 ± 5 vs Ovx, 386 ± 5.8 g; P < 0.05), fat mass (Ovx + RK, 3.2 ± 0.05 vs Ovx, 5.0 ± 0.4 g; P < 0.05), and fat cell size (Ovx + RK, 6.4 ± 0.6 vs Ovx, 11.1 ± 0.7 × 103 μm2; P < 0.05) in Ovx-induced obesity in rats. The expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS, and FABP4 was significantly reduced in the Ovx + RK group compared with that in the Ovx group. Similar patterns were observed in autophagy-related proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins. These results suggest that RK inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells and Ovx-induced obese rats.


adipogenesis; autophagy; obesity; ovariectomy; raspberry ketone

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