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BMC Pulm Med. 2017 Nov 21;17(1):147. doi: 10.1186/s12890-017-0493-4.

Clinical significance of cigarette smoking and dust exposure in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a Korean national survey.

Author information

1
Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.
2
Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Diseases, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
3
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
4
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.
5
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
6
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea.
7
Division of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
8
Division of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, South Korea.
9
Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea.
10
Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
11
Pulmonary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea.
12
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
13
Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
14
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, South Korea.
15
Division of Critical Care and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, South Korea.
16
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.
17
Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Diseases, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, South Korea. pms70@yuhs.ac.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics of Korean PAP patients and to examine the potential risk factors of PAP.

METHODS:

We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 78 Korean PAP patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2014. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence/absence of treatment (lavage). Clinical and laboratory features were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS:

Of the total 78 PAP patients, 60% were male and median age at diagnosis was 47.5 years. Fifty three percent were ever smokers (median 22 pack-years) and 48% had a history of dust exposure (metal 26.5%, stone or sand 20.6%, chemical or paint 17.7%, farming dust 14.7%, diesel 14.7%, textile 2.9%, and wood 2.9%). A history of cigarette smoking or dust exposure was present in 70.5% of the total PAP patients, with 23% having both of them. Patients who underwent lavage (n = 38) presented symptoms more frequently (38/38 [100%] vs. 24/40 [60%], P < 0.001) and had significantly lower PaO2 and DLCO with higher D(A-a)O2 at the onset of disease than those without lavage (n = 40) (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, and P = 0.036, respectively). Correspondingly, the distribution of disease severity score (DSS) differed significantly between the two groups (P = 0.001). Based on these, when the total patients were categorized according to DSS (low DSS [DSS 1-2] vs. high DSS [DSS 3-5]), smoking status differed significantly between the two groups with the proportion of current smokers significantly higher in the high DSS group (11/22 [50%] vs. 7/39 [17.9%], P = 0.008). Furthermore, current smokers had meaningfully higher DSS and serum CEA levels than non-current smokers (P = 0.011 and P = 0.031), whereas no difference was found between smokers and non-smokers. Regarding type of exposed dust, farming dust was significantly associated with more severe form of PAP (P = 0.004).

CONCLUSION:

A considerable proportion of PAP patients had a history of cigarette smoking and/or dust exposure, suggestive of their possible roles in the development of PAP. Active cigarette smoking at the onset of PAP is associated with the severity of PAP.

KEYWORDS:

Disease severity; Dust exposure; Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; Smoking

PMID:
29162083
PMCID:
PMC5697136
DOI:
10.1186/s12890-017-0493-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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