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PLoS Biol. 2017 Nov 21;15(11):e2003460. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2003460. eCollection 2017 Nov.

Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents.

Kearns CE1,2, Apollonio D1,3,4,5, Glantz SA1,3,5,6,7.

Author information

1
Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
2
Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
3
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
5
Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
6
Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
7
Department of Medicine; University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Abstract

In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture). The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1) strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2) caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny.

PMID:
29161267
PMCID:
PMC5697802
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pbio.2003460
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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