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Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Jan;176(1):171-174. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38531. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Discordant fetal phenotype of hypophosphatasia in two siblings.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Bone and Mineral Research, Research Institute, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Osaka, Japan.
Department of Pediatric Imaging, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
Division of Neonatology, Perinatal Center for Maternal and Child Health, Saitama City Hospital, Saitama, Japan.


Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with impaired bone mineralization due to mutations in the ALPL gene. The genotype-phenotype correlation of this disorder has been widely described. Here, we present two affected siblings, whose fetal phenotypes were discordant. A 31-year-old Japanese woman, G0P0, was referred to our institution because of fetal micromelia. After obstetric counseling, the pregnancy was terminated at 21 weeks' gestation. Post-mortem radiographs demonstrated severely defective mineralization of the skeleton. The calvarial, spinal, and tubular bones were mostly missing. Only the occipital bones, mandible, clavicles, ribs, one thoracic vertebra, ilia, and tibia were relatively well ossified. The radiological findings suggested lethal HPP. Genetic testing for genomic DNA extracted from the umbilical cord identified compound heterozygous mutations in the ALPL gene (c.532T>C, p.Y178H; c.1559delT, p.Leu520Argfs*86). c.532T>C was a novel variant showing no residual activity of the protein by the functional analysis. The parents were heterozygous carriers. In the next pregnancy, biometric values on fetal ultrasonography at 20 and 26 weeks' gestation were normal. At 34 weeks, however, a small chest and shortening of distal long bones came to attention. The neonate delivered at 41 weeks showed serum ALP of <5U/L. Radiological examination showed only mild thoracic hypoplasia and metaphyseal mineralization defects of the long bones. ALP replacement therapy was introduced shortly after birth, and the neonate was discharged at day 22 without respiratory distress. Awareness of discordant fetal phenotypes in siblings with HPP precludes a diagnostic error, and enables early medical intervention to mildly affected neonates.


discordant phenotype; hypophosphatasia; prenatal diagnosis; siblings; ultrasound

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