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Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017 Nov 6;11:3171-3177. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S149125. eCollection 2017.

A comparative pharmacokinetic and tolerability analysis of the novel orotic acid salt form of tenofovir disoproxil and the fumaric acid salt form in healthy subjects.

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Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital.
Dong-A ST Co., Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea.


A novel orotic acid salt form of tenofovir disoproxil (DA-2802) was developed and is expected to replace the fumaric acid salt form. The pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics and tolerability profiles of DA-2802 were compared to those of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, Viread®) in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose study was conducted in 36 healthy subjects using a two-treatment, two-period, and two-sequence crossover design. Subjects received a single oral dose of 319 mg DA-2802 or 300 mg TDF, during each period, with a 7-day washout. Serial blood samples were collected pre-dosing and up to 72 hours post-dosing in each period, for determination of serum tenofovir concentration, which was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A non-compartmental method was used to obtain PK parameters of tenofovir. For comparison between the two tenofovir disoproxil salts, the 90% confidence intervals (90% CIs) of geometric mean ratios of DA-2802 to TDF for the maximum concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-t) were determined. The tolerability profiles of tenofovir were assessed by evaluation of adverse events and vital signs, physical examination, ECG, and clinical laboratory tests. The serum tenofovir concentration-time profiles of DA-2802 or TDF were comparable in 32 subjects who completed the study. In both profiles, a two-compartmental elimination with first-order elimination kinetics in the terminal phase was reported in a few subjects, showing a secondary peak in the initial phase of elimination. The geometric mean ratio (90% CI) of DA-2802 to TDF was 0.898 (0.815-0.990) for Cmax and 0.904 (0.836-0.978) for AUC0-t. There were no clinically significant findings in the tolerability assessments. DA-2802 showed comparable PK characteristics and tolerability profiles to TDF.


chronic hepatitis B virus infection; drug development; phase I clinical trial

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