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Genetics. 2018 Jan;208(1):399-417. doi: 10.1534/genetics.117.300536. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Improving Metabolic Health Through Precision Dietetics in Mice.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Genetics Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695.
3
Center for Epigenetics, Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.
4
UT-ORNL Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996.
5
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
6
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27559.
7
Research Diets, Inc., New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901.
8
Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.
9
Nathan-McKusick Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.
10
Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 dwt@tamu.edu.
11
Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
12
Faculty of Genetics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
13
Faculty of Toxicology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.

Abstract

The incidence of diet-induced metabolic disease has soared over the last half-century, despite national efforts to improve health through universal dietary recommendations. Studies comparing dietary patterns of populations with health outcomes have historically provided the basis for healthy diet recommendations. However, evidence that population-level diet responses are reliable indicators of responses across individuals is lacking. This study investigated how genetic differences influence health responses to several popular diets in mice, which are similar to humans in genetic composition and the propensity to develop metabolic disease, but enable precise genetic and environmental control. We designed four human-comparable mouse diets that are representative of those eaten by historical human populations. Across four genetically distinct inbred mouse strains, we compared the American diet's impact on metabolic health to three alternative diets (Mediterranean, Japanese, and Maasai/ketogenic). Furthermore, we investigated metabolomic and epigenetic alterations associated with diet response. Health effects of the diets were highly dependent on genetic background, demonstrating that individualized diet strategies improve health outcomes in mice. If similar genetic-dependent diet responses exist in humans, then a personalized, or "precision dietetics," approach to dietary recommendations may yield better health outcomes than the traditional one-size-fits-all approach.

KEYWORDS:

diet; metabolic syndrome; mouse

PMID:
29158425
PMCID:
PMC5753872
DOI:
10.1534/genetics.117.300536
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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