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J Vis Exp. 2017 Nov 13;(129). doi: 10.3791/56313.

Mapping Genome-wide Accessible Chromatin in Primary Human T Lymphocytes by ATAC-Seq.

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The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University.
The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University;


Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) is a method used for the identification of open (accessible) regions of chromatin. These regions represent regulatory DNA elements (e.g., promoters, enhancers, locus control regions, insulators) to which transcription factors bind. Mapping the accessible chromatin landscape is a powerful approach for uncovering active regulatory elements across the genome. This information serves as an unbiased approach for discovering the network of relevant transcription factors and mechanisms of chromatin structure that govern gene expression programs. ATAC-seq is a robust and sensitive alternative to DNase I hypersensitivity analysis coupled with next-generation sequencing (DNase-seq) and formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE-seq) for genome-wide analysis of chromatin accessibility and to the sequencing of micrococcal nuclease-sensitive sites (MNase-seq) to determine nucleosome positioning. We present a detailed ATAC-seq protocol optimized for human primary immune cells i.e. CD4+ lymphocytes (T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells). This comprehensive protocol begins with cell harvest, then describes the molecular procedure of chromatin tagmentation, sample preparation for next-generation sequencing, and also includes methods and considerations for the computational analyses used to interpret the results. Moreover, to save time and money, we introduced quality control measures to assess the ATAC-seq library prior to sequencing. Importantly, the principles presented in this protocol allow its adaptation to other human immune and non-immune primary cells and cell lines. These guidelines will also be useful for laboratories which are not proficient with next-generation sequencing methods.

[Available on 2019-11-13]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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