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Mult Scler. 2017 Dec;23(14):1808-1817. doi: 10.1177/1352458517740215.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and pregnancy: Interactions and management.

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Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA/College of Medicine, Al Majmaah University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA/ Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.


Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) predominantly affect women who are of childbearing age. Understanding the interactions between pregnancy and NMOSD is important for clinical management. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most common target antigen in NMOSD, is expressed on placenta in early pregnancy. A variety of immune and cytokine changes in pregnancy may impact pregnancy outcomes in NMOSD patients. Relapses continue during pregnancy and increase in frequency postpartum. Preeclampsia and fetal loss are more frequent in NMOSD than in controls. Transfer of AQP4-immunoglobulin G (IgG) from mother to baby occurs but appears not to cause disease. Several treatment options are relatively safe and mitigate the risk of relapse during pregnancy and postpartum. For patients with active NMOSD, it may be advisable to continue immunotherapy during pregnancy.


NMOSD; breast feeding; immunosuppressive safety; miscarriage; pregnancy; relapse rate

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