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Med Gas Res. 2017 Oct 17;7(3):212-219. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.215752. eCollection 2017 Jul-Sep.

Ozone therapy: an overview of pharmacodynamics, current research, and clinical utility.

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Foley Plaza Medical, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
Medical Student Research Institute, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies.
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Urology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA.


The use of ozone (O3) gas as a therapy in alternative medicine has attracted skepticism due to its unstable molecular structure. However, copious volumes of research have provided evidence that O3's dynamic resonance structures facilitate physiological interactions useful in treating a myriad of pathologies. Specifically, O3 therapy induces moderate oxidative stress when interacting with lipids. This interaction increases endogenous production of antioxidants, local perfusion, and oxygen delivery, as well as enhances immune responses. We have conducted a comprehensive review of O3 therapy, investigating its contraindications, routes and concentrations of administration, mechanisms of action, disinfectant properties in various microorganisms, and its medicinal use in different pathologies. We explore the therapeutic value of O3 in pathologies of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, central nervous system, head and neck, musculoskeletal, subcutaneous tissue, and peripheral vascular disease. Despite compelling evidence, further studies are essential to mark it as a viable and quintessential treatment option in medicine.


autohemotherapy; lipid ozonation products; oxidative preconditioning; oxidative stress; ozone; ozone gas; ozone therapy; reactive oxidative species

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Conflicts of interest The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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