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Sci Total Environ. 2018 Mar 15;618:542-550. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.294. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Associations of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites with fractional exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled carbon monoxide: A cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Department of Occupational & Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.
2
Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory for Applied Toxicology, Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan, Hubei 430079, China.
3
Department of Occupational & Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China. Electronic address: wchen@mails.tjmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Exposure to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with inflammatory responses. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) are both important inflammatory mediators especially in airways. However, few studies have investigated associations of PAH exposures with FeNO or eCO. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the associations of urinary PAH metabolites with FeNO and eCO levels, and investigate their potential effect modifiers by linear mixed models among 4133 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort in China. We further performed stratified analyses to estimate effect modification. We found significant associations of increased urinary PAH metabolites with elevated eCO and FeNO. Among all participants, each 1% increase of 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, and total PAH metabolites was significantly associated with a 12.6% (95% confidence interval: 9.3%, 15.9%), 9.7% (6.5%, 12.9%), 7.5% (4.1%, 10.9%), 3.2% (0.2%, 6.2%), 2.7% (0.1%, 5.3%), and 6.5% (2.7%, 10.4%) increased eCO level, respectively; while each 1% increase of urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 2-hydroxyphenanthrene was associated with a -3.0% (-5.8%, -0.2%), 2.9% (0.3%, 5.6%), 3.2% (1.0%, 5.4%), and 4.5% (2.2%, 6.9%) change of FeNO level, respectively. Positive associations between certain urinary PAH metabolites and eCO were observed among both ever-smokers and non-smokers, and the associations were stronger among ever-smokers than that among non-smokers. Increased urinary PAH metabolites were associated with decreased FeNO among ever-smokers and elevated FeNO levels among non-smokers. Our findings suggest that PAH exposures may impair airway through inducing inflammatory response, especially among ever-smokers.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers of exposure; FeNO; PAHs; Tobacco smoking; Urinary monohydroxyl metabolites; eCO

PMID:
29149738
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.294
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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