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Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 2;82:216-223. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.11.013. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Estrogen levels, emotion regulation, and emotional symptoms of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: The moderating effect of estrogen receptor 1α polymorphism.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
5
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: 920294@kmhk.org.tw.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study evaluated the association between estrogen levels, emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and stress of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). We also evaluated the moderating effect of estrogen receptor (ESR) α-Xbal polymorphism on the aforementioned association.

METHODS:

A total of 100 women were diagnosed with PMDD based on psychiatric interviews and a prospective investigation of 3 menstrual cycles. A total of 96 normal individuals were recruited as controls. Their estrogen levels, depression, anxiety, stress, and ESR α-Xbal polymorphism in both premenstrual and follicular phases were assessed, and these data were included in the final analysis.

RESULTS:

The PMDD group had high depression, anxiety, and stress and low emotional adjusting and tolerating in the premenstrual phase. Emotional adjustment was negatively associated with depression, anxiety and stress. No association was observed between PMDD and estrogen level. However, premenstrual estrogen level was negatively correlated with anxiety and stress in women with PMDD. The association was only significant in G carriers of ESR α-Xbal, as was the difference in premenstrual emotion regulation between the PMDD and control groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results demonstrate the association between estrogen and anxiety in PMDD, supporting the claim that women with PMDD differ in their responses to normal estrogen levels. Furthermore, this association and dysfunctional emotional regulation in PMDD existed only among the G carriers of ESR α-Xbal polymorphism. Future studies should investigate the effect of estrogen on brain functions involving emotional regulation in women with PMDD, stratified by ESR α-Xbal polymorphism.

KEYWORDS:

Emotional regulation; Estrogen; Estrogen receptor α; Menstrual cycle; Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

PMID:
29146473
DOI:
10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.11.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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