Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Andrology. 2018 Jan;6(1):58-63. doi: 10.1111/andr.12433. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Clinical and biochemical correlates of male hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine and Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Salamanca, University Clinical Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
2
Department of Medicine and Service of Internal Medicine, University of Salamanca, University Clinical Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
3
Department of Statistics, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
4
Cancer Research Institute (IBMCC-CSIC/USAL) and Institute for Biomedical Research of the University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

Abstract

The origin of hypogonadism, a condition including both symptoms and biochemical criteria of androgen deficiency, in type 2 diabetes is poorly known. In a cross-sectional study of 267 unselected patients, we analyzed the potential correlation of several clinical and biochemical variables as well as chronic micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications with hypogonadism. Hypogonadism was present in 46 patients (17.2%) using a cutoff of total testosterone 10.4 nmol/L and in 31 (11.6%) with a cutoff of 8 nmol/L. Among these patients, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was the most prevalent form (82.6%). Compared to eugonadal subjects, hypogonadal men had significantly lower glomerular filtration rate (67.1 ± 23.4 vs. 78.4 ± 24.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 , p = 0.005) and higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease (43.5% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.002), abnormal liver function tests (26.7% vs. 12%, p = 0.019), and psychiatric treatment (23.9% vs. 10.4%, p = 0.025). Total testosterone levels correlated inversely with age (R = -0.164, p = 0.007), fasting blood glucose (R = -0.127, p = 0.037), and triglycerides (R = -0.134, p = 0.029) and directly with glomerular filtration rate (R = 0.148, p = 0.015). Calculated free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone correlated directly with hemoglobin (R = 0.171, p = 0.015 and R = 0.234, p = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for relevant confounding variables, showed that age >60 years (OR = 3.58, CI 95% = 1.48-8.69, p = 0.005), body mass index >27 kg/m2 (OR = 2.85, CI 95% = 1.14-7.11, p = 0.025), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.16, CI 95% = 1.05-4.41, p = 0.035), glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR = 2.51, CI 95% = 1.19-5.29, p = 0.015), and abnormal liver function tests (OR = 3.57, CI 95% = 1.48-8.60, p = 0.005) were independently associated with male hypogonadism. Although older age, body mass index, and hypertriglyceridemia have been previously related to hypogonadism, our results describe that chronic kidney disease and abnormal liver function tests are independently correlated with hypogonadism in type 2 diabetic men.

KEYWORDS:

etiology; hypogonadism; risk factors; testosterone; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
29145714
DOI:
10.1111/andr.12433
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center