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Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Apr;65(2):e355-e360. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12765. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Molecular epidemiological survey and phylogenetic analysis of bovine influenza D virus in Japan.

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Organization for Promotion of Tenure Track, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.
Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.
Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.
Center for the Promotion of Institutional Research, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.
Research and Education Center for Prevention of Global Infectious Diseases of Animals, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan.
Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.


The influenza D virus, a new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is predominantly found in cattle. Although viral pathology and clinical disease in cattle appear mild, this virus plays an important role as a trigger of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a costly illness worldwide. Thus, epidemiological surveys of the influenza D virus are necessary. Here, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey for the influenza D virus in healthy and respiratory-diseased cattle in Japan. We found that 2.1% (8/377) of the cattle were infected with influenza D. The cattle with and without respiratory symptoms had approximately equal amounts of the virus. A full-genome sequence analysis revealed that the influenza D virus that was isolated in Japan formed an individual cluster that was distinct from the strains found in other countries. These results suggest that this virus might have evolved uniquely in Japan over a long period of time and that the viral pathology of Japanese strains might be different from the strains found in other countries. Continuous surveillance is required to determine the importance of this virus and to characterize its evolution.


bovine respiratory disease; cattle; epidemiology; full-genome sequence; influenza D virus; phylogeny

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