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Kidney Int Rep. 2017 Feb 16;2(4):617-625. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2017.02.007. eCollection 2017 Jul.

Effectiveness of Multifaceted Care Approach on Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Nondiabetic CKD: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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Division of Nephrology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
John W. Scott Health Sciences Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.



The risk of major adverse events associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) could potentially be reduced with effective medical interventions. The impact of multifaceted interventions as compared with usual care in patients with nondiabetic CKD is unclear. We performed a systematic review to analyze the impact of multifaceted interventions on reducing the risk of major adverse events in this population.


Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases for medical literature published up to November 2016. Published original studies and abstracts were reviewed that reported on adult patients in a community or specialty care setting, with 2 or more CKD risk factors, treated with a combination of more than 2 interventions. We included randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and systematic reviews. Studies focused on diabetic patients were excluded. The intervention was defined as a treatment with a combination of 2 or more interventions compared with the usual care. The outcomes were defined as a reduction in the risk of adverse clinical outcomes (renal replacement therapy, all-cause hospitalizations, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular events) as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were optimal risk factor control (attaining guideline concordant blood pressure, reduction of proteinuria, smoking cessation).


Five of the 5846 unique citations from our initial literature search met our study criteria. All identified studies reported on patients with CKD and their management. In comparison with usual care, multifaceted interventions tended to reduce all-cause mortality (risk ratio: 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-1.03) and were associated with a lower risk of progression to kidney failure requiring dialysis (risk ratio: 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.94). Multifaceted interventions were not associated with reducing risk of all-cause hospitalizations (risk ratio: 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.71-1.23) or improved blood pressure control (mean difference: -0.48, range: -2.5 to 1.55 mm Hg).


Multifaceted interventions targeting multiple risk factors tended to reduce the risk of all-cause mortality and reduced the risk to progress to end-stage kidney failure in patients with CKD. There is a need for high-quality studies that can rigorously evaluate a set of interventions targeting multiple domains of CKD management in the population with nondiabetic CKD due to paucity of data in the current published literature.


multifaceted care; nondiabetic CKD; outcomes; systematic review

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