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J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Oct;43(5):288-298. doi: 10.5125/jkaoms.2017.43.5.288. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Three-dimensional printing for craniomaxillofacial regeneration.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.


Craniomaxillofacial injuries produce complex wound environments involving various tissue types and treatment strategies. In a clinical setting, care is taken to properly irrigate and stabilize the injury, while grafts are molded in an attempt to maintain physiological functionality and cosmesis. This often requires multiple surgeries and grafts leading to added discomfort, pain and financial burden. Many of these injuries can lead to disfigurement and resultant loss of system function including mastication, respiration, and articulation, and these can lead to acute and long-term psychological impact on the patient. A main causality of these issues is the lack of an ability to spatially control pre-injury morphology while maintaining shape and function. With the advent of additive manufacturing (three-dimensional printing) and its use in conjunction with biomaterial regenerative strategies and stem cell research, there is an increased potential capacity to alleviate such limitations. This review focuses on the current capabilities of additive manufacturing platforms, completed research and potential for future uses in the treatment of craniomaxillofacial injuries, with an in-depth discussion of regeneration of the periodontal complex and teeth.


Biomaterials; Hydroxyapatite; Periodontium; Three-dimensional printing

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