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J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018 Feb;89(2):127-137. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2017-316880. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Clinical course, therapeutic responses and outcomes in relapsing MOG antibody-associated demyelination.

Author information

1
Brain Autoimmunity Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Kids Research Institute at the Children's Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
2
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
3
Department of Neurology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
4
TY Nelson Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
5
Department of Clinical Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
6
University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
7
Ocular Motor Research Laboratory, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
8
Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
9
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
10
Department of Neurology, Gold Coast University Hospital, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
11
Department of Neurology, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
12
Faculty of Medicine and Public Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
13
Department of Ophthalmology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
14
Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We characterised the clinical course, treatment and outcomes in 59 patients with relapsing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated demyelination.

METHODS:

We evaluated clinical phenotypes, annualised relapse rates (ARR) prior and on immunotherapy and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), in 218 demyelinating episodes from 33 paediatric and 26 adult patients.

RESULTS:

The most common initial presentation in the cohort was optic neuritis (ON) in 54% (bilateral (BON) 32%, unilateral (UON) 22%), followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (20%), which occurred exclusively in children. ON was the dominant phenotype (UON 35%, BON 19%) of all clinical episodes. 109/226 (48%) MRIs had no brain lesions. Patients were steroid responsive, but 70% of episodes treated with oral prednisone relapsed, particularly at doses <10 mg daily or within 2 months of cessation. Immunotherapy, including maintenance prednisone (P=0.0004), intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab and mycophenolate, all reduced median ARRs on-treatment. Treatment failure rates were lower in patients on maintenance steroids (5%) compared with non-steroidal maintenance immunotherapy (38%) (P=0.016). 58% of patients experienced residual disability (average follow-up 61 months, visual loss in 24%). Patients with ON were less likely to have sustained disability defined by a final EDSS of ≥2 (OR 0.15, P=0.032), while those who had any myelitis were more likely to have sustained residual deficits (OR 3.56, P=0.077).

CONCLUSION:

Relapsing MOG antibody-associated demyelination is strongly associated with ON across all age groups and ADEM in children. Patients are highly responsive to steroids, but vulnerable to relapse on steroid reduction and cessation.

KEYWORDS:

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies; optic neuritis; outcomes; therapy

PMID:
29142145
PMCID:
PMC5800335
DOI:
10.1136/jnnp-2017-316880
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: Dr SR has received research funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council, the Petre Foundation and the Brain Foundation (Australia). Dr SM has received a scholarship from the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) and funding from the National Blood Authority IVIg grant. SB has received honoraria for attendance at advisory boards and travel sponsorship from Bayer-Schering, Biogen-Idec, Merck-Serono, Novartis and Sanofi-Genzyme, has received speakers honoraria from Biogen-Idec and Genzyme, is an investigator in clinical trials sponsored by Biogen-Idec, Novartis and Genzyme and was the recipient of an unencumbered research grant from Biogen-Idec. JL-S has accepted travel compensation from Novartis, Biogen and Merck-Serono. Her institution receives the honoraria for talks and advisory board commitment as well as research grants from Bayer Health Care, Biogen, Sanofi-Genzyme, Merck, Novartis and Teva. SR reports grants and personal fees from Sanofi-Genzyme, personal fees and departmental support from the Government of Australia, Baxter, Biogen, CSL and Merck; and departmental support from Novartis, outside the subject of the submitted work. Associate Professor FB has received research funding from the Star Scientific Foundation, The Trish Multiple Sclerosis Research Foundation, Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia and the National Health Medical Research Council (Australia). RD has received research funding from the Star Scientific Foundation, The Trish Multiple Sclerosis Research Foundation, Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia, the Petre Foundation and the National Health Medical Research Council (Australia). Dr RCD has received honoraria from Biogen-Idec as an invited speaker. Dr JLB has received compensation for education travel, honoraria for talks and advisory boards from Biogen, Teva, Merck-Serono, Sanofi-Genzyme, Novartis and Roche. Dr AC has received honoraria for attendance at advisory boards from Biogen and is an investigator in clinical trials sponsored by Biogen and Pfizer. Dr PC has accepted travel compensation from, Biogen and Merck Serono, and fellowship funding from Novartis/Biogen. Associate Professor CLF has received payment from Roche as a consultant. Dr MPM has received travel grants, speaking honoraria and unconditional research funding from Bayer, Biogen and Merck. Professor IES is supported by NHMRC Program Grant (1091593, 2016–2020) and Senior Practitioner Fellowship (1104831, 2016– 2020). IES serves on the editorial boards of Neurology and Epileptic Disorders; may accrue future revenue on a pending patent report: therapeutic compound; has received speakers honoraria from Athena Diagnostics, UCB, GSK, Eisai and Transgenomics; has received scientific advisory board honoraria from Nutricia and GSK, has received funding for travel from Athena Diagnostics, UCB and GSK and receives/has received research support from the NHMRC, ARC, NIH, Health Research Council of New Zealand, March of Dimes, the Weizmann Institute, CURE, US Department of Defense and the Perpetual Charitable Trustees. Dr EY is supported by an NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (APP1073323).

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