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Gastric Cancer. 2018 May;21(3):372-382. doi: 10.1007/s10120-017-0774-x. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

High adherence to the Western, Prudent, and Mediterranean dietary patterns and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma: MCC-Spain study.

Author information

1
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Centre for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Av/Monforte de Lemos, 5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. acastello@isciii.es.
2
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Carlos III Institute of Health, Av/Monforte de Lemos, 5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. acastello@isciii.es.
3
Faculty of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. acastello@isciii.es.
4
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Centre for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Av/Monforte de Lemos, 5, 28029, Madrid, Spain.
5
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Carlos III Institute of Health, Av/Monforte de Lemos, 5, 28029, Madrid, Spain.
6
The Research Group in Gene-Environment and Health Interactions, Vegazana Campus, University of León, León, Spain.
7
Public Health Institute of Navarra, IdiSNA, Pamplona, Spain.
8
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Campus de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.
9
Unit of Biomarkers and Susceptibility, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Gran Via km 2.7, 08907, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.
10
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain.
11
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.
12
IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.
13
Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander, Spain.
14
IUOPA, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
15
Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunitat Valenciana FISABIO-Salud Pública, Valencia, Spain.
16
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
17
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Complejo Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
18
Centro de Investigación en Salud y Medio Ambiente (CYSMA), Universidad de Huelva, Huelva, Spain.
19
Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain.
20
Department of Health and Social Sciences, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
21
Servicio de Cirugía General, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The influence of dietary habits on the development of gastric adenocarcinoma is not clear. The objective of the present study was to explore the association of three previously identified dietary patterns with gastric adenocarcinoma by sex, age, cancer site, and morphology.

METHODS:

MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that included 295 incident cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and 3040 controls. The association of the Western, Prudent, and Mediterranean dietary patterns-derived in another Spanish case-control study-with gastric adenocarcinoma was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with random province-specific intercepts and considering a possible interaction with sex and age. Risk according to tumor site (cardia, non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal/diffuse) was evaluated using multinomial regression models.

RESULTS:

A high adherence to the Western pattern increased gastric adenocarcinoma risk [odds ratiofourth_vs._first_quartile (95% confidence interval), 2.09 (1.31; 3.33)] even at low levels [odds ratiosecond_vs._first_quartile (95% confidence interval), 1.63 (1.05; 2.52)]. High adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern could prevent gastric adenocarcinoma [odds ratiofourth_vs._first_quartile (95% confidence interval), 0.53 (0.34; 0.82)]. Although no significant heterogeneity of effects was observed, the harmful effect of the Western pattern was stronger among older participants and for non-cardia adenocarcinomas, whereas the protective effect of the Mediterranean pattern was only observed among younger participants and for non-cardia tumors.

CONCLUSION:

Decreasing the consumption of fatty and sugary products and of red and processed meat in favor of an increase in the intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish might prevent gastric adenocarcinoma.

KEYWORDS:

Adenocarcinoma; Diet, Mediterranean; Diet, Western; Population attributable fraction; Prevention and control; Principal component analysis; Stomach neoplasms

PMID:
29139048
DOI:
10.1007/s10120-017-0774-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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