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Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:7454376. doi: 10.1155/2017/7454376. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review.

Author information

1
Department of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
2
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center and the Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
4
Bad Gleichenberg Clinic, Bad Gleichenberg, Austria.
5
Department of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
6
Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Abstract

Vitamins D and K are both fat-soluble vitamins and play a central role in calcium metabolism. Vitamin D promotes the production of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which require vitamin K for carboxylation in order to function properly. The purpose of this review is to summarize available evidence of the synergistic interplay between vitamins D and K on bone and cardiovascular health. Animal and human studies suggest that optimal concentrations of both vitamin D and vitamin K are beneficial for bone and cardiovascular health as supported by genetic, molecular, cellular, and human studies. Most clinical trials studied vitamin D and K supplementation with bone health in postmenopausal women. Few intervention trials studied vitamin D and K supplementation with cardiovascular-related outcomes. These limited studies indicate that joint supplementation might be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Current evidence supports the notion that joint supplementation of vitamins D and K might be more effective than the consumption of either alone for bone and cardiovascular health. As more is discovered about the powerful combination of vitamins D and K, it gives a renewed reason to eat a healthy diet including a variety of foods such as vegetables and fermented dairy for bone and cardiovascular health.

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