Send to

Choose Destination
G3 (Bethesda). 2018 Jan 4;8(1):239-251. doi: 10.1534/g3.117.300392.

Natural Variation in SER1 and ENA6 Underlie Condition-Specific Growth Defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Author information

Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122.
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.
Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122


Despite their ubiquitous use in laboratory strains, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding core metabolic enzymes are relatively rare in wild isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Here, we identify a naturally occurring serine auxotrophy in a sake brewing strain from Japan. Through a cross with a honey wine (white tecc) brewing strain from Ethiopia, we map the minimal medium growth defect to SER1, which encodes 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase and is orthologous to the human disease gene, PSAT1 To investigate the impact of this polymorphism under conditions of abundant external nutrients, we examine growth in rich medium alone or with additional stresses, including the drugs caffeine and rapamycin and relatively high concentrations of copper, salt, and ethanol. Consistent with studies that found widespread effects of different auxotrophies on RNA expression patterns in rich media, we find that the SER1 loss-of-function allele dominates the quantitative trait locus (QTL) landscape under many of these conditions, with a notable exacerbation of the effect in the presence of rapamycin and caffeine. We also identify a major-effect QTL associated with growth on salt that maps to the gene encoding the sodium exporter, ENA6 We demonstrate that the salt phenotype is largely driven by variation in the ENA6 promoter, which harbors a deletion that removes binding sites for the Mig1 and Nrg1 transcriptional repressors. Thus, our results identify natural variation associated with both coding and regulatory regions of the genome that underlie strong growth phenotypes.


QTL mapping; natural variation; salt stress; serine metabolism; yeast

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center