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Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Nov 13;18(11). pii: E2401. doi: 10.3390/ijms18112401.

Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1-42 in Mice.

Author information

1
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi 13488, Korea. kej763@naver.com.
2
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi 13488, Korea. Kuijin.Kim@cha.ac.kr.
3
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi 13488, Korea. redcross0313@naver.com.
4
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi 13488, Korea. wldk3176@gmail.com.
5
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Cheongju 28674, Korea. hyeonl@kangwon.ac.kr.
6
Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea. dohkang@kiost.ac.kr.
7
Division of Applied Life Science, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea. hjher@gnu.ac.kr.
8
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi 13488, Korea. bylee@cha.ac.kr.

Abstract

Spirulina maxima, a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ1-42-injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ1-42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ1-42-injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ1-42-injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ1-42-injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ1-42-injected mice. SM70EE also promoted activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ1-42-induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 in mice.

KEYWORDS:

Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE); amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing; cognitive impairment; glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β); oxidative stress

PMID:
29137190
PMCID:
PMC5713369
DOI:
10.3390/ijms18112401
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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