Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 28;114(48):12702-12707. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1712921114. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Parochial trust and cooperation across 17 societies.

Author information

1
Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1081BT, The Netherlands; romano@coll.mpg.de.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin 10124, Italy.
3
Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1081BT, The Netherlands.
4
Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy, Hitotsubashi University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8439, Japan.
5
School of Psychology, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand.

Abstract

International challenges such as climate change, poverty, and intergroup conflict require countries to cooperate to solve these complex problems. However, the political tide in many countries has shifted inward, with skepticism and reluctance to cooperate with other countries. Thus, cross-societal investigations are needed to test theory about trust and cooperation within and between groups. We conducted an experimental study in 17 countries designed to test several theories that explain why, who, and where people trust and cooperate more with ingroup members, compared with outgroup members. The experiment involved several interactions in the trust game, either as a trustor or trustee. We manipulated partner group membership in the trust game (ingroup, outgroup, or unknown) and if their reputation was at stake during the interaction. In addition to the standard finding that participants trust and cooperate more with ingroup than outgroup members, we obtained findings that reputational concerns play a decisive role for promoting trust and cooperation universally across societies. Furthermore, men discriminated more in favor of their ingroup than women. Individual differences in cooperative preferences, as measured by social value orientation, predicted cooperation with both ingroup and outgroup members. Finally, we did not find support for three theories about the cross-societal conditions that influence the degree of ingroup favoritism observed across societies (e.g., material security, religiosity, and pathogen stress). We discuss the implications for promoting cooperation within and between countries.

KEYWORDS:

cooperation; culture; parochial altruism; reputation; trust

PMID:
29133403
PMCID:
PMC5715771
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1712921114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center