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Cell. 2017 Nov 30;171(6):1316-1325.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.10.018. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Light Controls Protein Localization through Phytochrome-Mediated Alternative Promoter Selection.

Author information

1
Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.
2
Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 820-8502, Japan; CREST, JST, Saitama 332-0012, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; PRESTO, JST, Saitama 332-0012, Japan.
4
Center for Bioscience Research and Education, Utsunomiya University, Tochigi 321-8505, Japan.
5
PRESTO, JST, Saitama 332-0012, Japan; Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan; RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
6
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
7
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1103, Japan.
8
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1103, Japan; Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1103, Japan.
9
Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602, Japan.
10
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562, Japan.
11
Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan; PRESTO, JST, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. Electronic address: mat@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

Alternative promoter usage is a proteome-expanding mechanism that allows multiple pre-mRNAs to be transcribed from a single gene. The impact of this mechanism on the proteome and whether it is positively exploited in normal organismal responses remain unclear. We found that the plant photoreceptor phytochrome induces genome-wide changes in alternative promoter selection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through this mechanism, protein isoforms with different N termini are produced that display light-dependent differences in localization. For instance, shade-grown plants accumulate a cytoplasmic isoform of glycerate kinase (GLYK), an essential photorespiration enzyme that was previously thought to localize exclusively to the chloroplast. Cytoplasmic GLYK constitutes a photorespiratory bypass that alleviates fluctuating light-induced photoinhibition. Therefore, phytochrome controls alternative promoter selection to modulate protein localization in response to changing light conditions. This study suggests that alternative promoter usage represents another ubiquitous layer of gene expression regulation in eukaryotes that contributes to diversification of the proteome.

KEYWORDS:

alternative promoter; gene expression; light signaling; photoinhibition; photorespiration; phytochrome; protein localization

PMID:
29129375
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2017.10.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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