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Pediatr Nephrol. 2018 Mar;33(3):511-520. doi: 10.1007/s00467-017-3818-x. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

Fluid overload independent of acute kidney injury predicts poor outcomes in neonates following congenital heart surgery.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford Cardiovascular Research Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
2
Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, 725 Welch Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.
3
Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
5
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford Cardiovascular Research Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. drewshin@stanford.edu.
6
Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, 725 Welch Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA. drewshin@stanford.edu.
7
Center for Quality and Clinical Effectiveness, Stanford Children's Health, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA. drewshin@stanford.edu.
8
Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Stanford University Medical Center, 750 Welch Road, Ste 305, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA. drewshin@stanford.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Fluid overload (FO) is common after neonatal congenital heart surgery and may contribute to mortality and morbidity. It is unclear if the effects of FO are independent of acute kidney injury (AKI).

METHODS:

This was a retrospective cohort study which examined neonates (age < 30 days) who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass in a university-affiliated children's hospital between 20 October 2010 and 31 December 2012. Demographic information, risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score, surgery type, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross-clamp time, and vasoactive inotrope score were recorded. FO [(fluid in-out)/pre-operative weight] and AKI defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria were calculated. Outcomes were all-cause, in-hospital mortality and median postoperative hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay.

RESULTS:

Overall, 167 neonates underwent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass in the study period, of whom 117 met the inclusion criteria. Of the 117 neonates included in the study, 76 (65%) patients developed significant FO (>10%), and 25 (21%) developed AKI ≥ Stage 2. When analyzed as FO cohorts (< 10%,10-20%, > 20% FO), patients with greater FO were more likely to have AKI (9.8 vs. 18.2 vs. 52.4%, respectively, with AKI ≥ stage 2; p = 0.013) and a higher vasoactive-inotrope score, and be premature. In the multivariable regression analyses of patients without AKI, FO was independently associated with hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay [0.322 extra days (p = 0.029) and 0.468 extra days (p < 0.001), respectively, per 1% FO increase). In all patients, FO was also associated with mortality [odds ratio 1.058 (5.8% greater odds of mortality per 1% FO increase); 95% confidence interval 1.008,1.125;p = 0.032].

CONCLUSIONS:

Fluid overload is an important independent contributor to outcomes in neonates following congenital heart surgery. Careful fluid management after cardiac surgery in neonates with and without AKI is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Acute kidney injury; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Congenital heart defects; Critical care outcomes; Fluid balance; Postoperative care

PMID:
29128923
DOI:
10.1007/s00467-017-3818-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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