Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Pollut. 2018 Feb;233:714-724. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.10.123. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Temporal-spatial characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5 as well as its associated chemical species in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China.

Author information

1
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation & Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Department of Air Pollution Control, Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection, Beijing 100054, China.
2
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation & Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Center for Atmospheric Environmental Studies, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.
3
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation & Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, China.
4
State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China.
5
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation & Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Center for Atmospheric Environmental Studies, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China. Electronic address: hztian@bnu.edu.cn.

Abstract

PM2.5 and its major chemical compositions were sampled and analyzed in January, April, July and October of 2014 at Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Langfang (LF) and Baoding (BD) in order to probe the temporal and spatial characteristics as well as source apportionment of PM2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The results showed that PM2.5 pollution was severe in the BTH region. The average annual concentrations of PM2.5 at four sampling sites were in the range of 126-180 μg/m3, with more than 95% of sampling days exceeding 35 μg/m3, the limit ceiling of average annual concentration of PM2.5 regulated in the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB3095-2012). Additionally, concentrations of PM2.5 and its major chemical species were seasonally dependent and demonstrated spatially similar variation characteristics in the BTH region. Concentration of toxic heavy metals, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, were higher in winter and autumn. Secondary inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) were the three-major water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) of PM2.5 and their mass ratios to PM2.5 were higher in summer and autumn. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were lower in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. Five factors were selected in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model analysis, and the results showed that PM2.5 pollution was dominated by vehicle emissions in Beijing, combustion emissions including coal burning and biomass combustion in Langfang and Baoding, and soil and construction dust emissions in Tianjin, respectively. The air mass that were derived from the south and southeast local areas around BTH regions reflected the features of short-distant and small-scale air transport. Shandong, Henan, and Hebei were identified the major potential sources-areas of secondary aerosol emissions to PM2.5.

KEYWORDS:

Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; Chemical composition; PM(2.5); Source apportionment; Spatial and temporal characteristics

PMID:
29126093
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2017.10.123
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center