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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017 Dec 6;9(48):41898-41905. doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b13947. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Effect of Rubidium Incorporation on the Structural, Electrical, and Photovoltaic Properties of Methylammonium Lead Iodide-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University , Seoul 08826, South Korea.
Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon 16419, South Korea.
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University , Daegu 41566, South Korea.
Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory , 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States.


We report the electrical properties of rubidium-incorporated methylammonium lead iodide ((RbxMA1-x)PbI3) films and the photovoltaic performance of (RbxMA1-x)PbI3 film-based p-i-n-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The incorporation of a small amount of Rb+ (x = 0.05) increases both the open circuit voltage (Voc) and the short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of the PSCs, leading to an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, a high fraction of Rb+ incorporation (x = 0.1 and 0.2) decreases the Jsc and thus the PCE, which is attributed to the phase segregation of the single tetragonal perovskite phase to a MA-rich tetragonal perovskite phase and a RbPbI3 orthorhombic phase at high Rb fractions. Conductive atomic force microscopic and admittance spectroscopic analyses reveal that the single-phase (Rb0.05MA0.95)PbI3 film has a high electrical conductivity because of a reduced deep-level trap density. We also found that Rb substitution enhances the diode characteristics of the PSC, as evidenced by the reduced reverse saturation current (J0). The optimized (RbxMA1-x)PbI3 PSCs exhibited a PCE of 18.8% with negligible hysteresis in the photocurrent-voltage curve. The results from this work enhance the understanding of the effect of Rb incorporation into organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites and enable the exploration of Rb-incorporated mixed perovskites for various applications, such as solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes.


conductivity; methylammonium lead halides; rubidium; solar cells; trap density of states


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