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Am J Psychiatry. 1989 Feb;146(2):220-5.

Hierarchy of characteristics associated with depressive symptoms in an urban elderly sample.

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Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y.


In contrast to the uncertainty about the prevalence and importance of late-life depressive disorders, a consistent pattern of risk factors for depressive symptoms has been shown by studies using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The authors surveyed a representative sample of 2,137 elderly community residents with the CES-D and found a hierarchy of characteristics associated with substantial levels of depressive symptoms: illness, disability, isolation, bereavement, and poverty. If these findings are confirmed by prospective studies, addressing modifiable factors in the emergence, persistence, and remission of depressive symptoms might extend the independent survival of older adults.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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