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Cancer Epidemiol. 2017 Oct;50(Pt B):260-267. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2017.04.011.

Cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in four US-Affiliated Pacific Islands between 2007 and 2015.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: vsenkomago@cdc.gov.
2
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.
3
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Pacific Regional Cancer Programs, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cervical cancer incidence in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is double that of the US mainland. American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam and the Republic of Palau receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to implement cervical cancer screening to low-income, uninsured or under insured women. The USAPI grantees report data on screening and follow-up activities to the CDC.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data from the NBCCEDP programs in the four USAPIs from 2007 to 2015. We summarized screening done by Papanicolaou (Pap) and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) tests, follow-up and diagnostic tests provided, and histology results observed.

RESULTS:

A total of 22,249 Pap tests were conducted in 14,206 women in the four USAPIs programs from 2007-2015. The overall percentages of abnormal Pap results (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse) was 2.4% for first program screens and 1.8% for subsequent program screens. Histology results showed a high proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (57%) among women with precancers and cancers. Roughly one-third (32%) of Pap test results warranting follow-up had no data recorded on diagnostic tests or follow-up done.

CONCLUSION:

This is the first report of cervical cancer screening and outcomes of women served in the USAPI through the NBCCEDP with similar results for abnormal Pap tests, but higher proportion of precancers and cancers, when compared to national NBCCEDP data. The USAPI face significant challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening, particularly in providing and recording data on diagnostic tests and follow-up. The screening programs in the USAPI should further examine specific barriers to follow-up of women with abnormal Pap results and possible solutions to address them.

KEYWORDS:

Cervical cancer; NBCCEDP; Screening; US territories; US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

PMID:
29120834
PMCID:
PMC5739878
DOI:
10.1016/j.canep.2017.04.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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