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J Med Food. 2017 Nov;20(11):1113-1120. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.3951.

Apple Polyphenol Suppresses Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Damage in Experimental Animals by Lowering Oxidative Stress Status and Modulating the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

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1 Department of Nutrition Therapy, E-DA Hospital , Kaohsiung City, Taiwan .
2 Institute of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University , Taichung City, Taiwan .
3 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Medical College, Chung Shan Medical University , Taichung City, Taiwan .
4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital , Taichung, Taiwan .


Indomethacin is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine. Previous studies indicated that NSAIDs can cause gastrointestinal mucosal complications, and it is associated with mucosal lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage. Based on the evidences, decreasing oxidative stress may be an ideal therapeutic strategy for preventing gastrointestinal ulcer. Apple (Rosaceae Malus sp.) is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. The abundant polyphenolic constituents have received increasing attention for decades. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, the reports showed that apple polyphenol (AP) seems to provide an indirect antioxidant protection by activating cellular antioxidant enzymes to defend against oxidative stress. To address this issue and develop AP into a healthy improvement supplement, we studied the effect and potential mechanisms of AP in indomethacin-treated animal. The results showed AP can decelerate the gastric lesion, significantly suppress lipid peroxidation, increase the level of glutathione and the activity of catalase, and regulate the MAPK signaling proteins. These findings imply that AP protects the gastric mucosa from indomethacin-caused lesions and the protection is at least partially attributable to its antioxidative properties. This alternative medical function of AP may be a safe and effective intervention for preventing indomethacin-induced gastric complications.


apple polyphenol; gastric ulcer; nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs; oxidative stress

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