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Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1693:253-268. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7395-8_19.

Guidelines for Bacteriophage Product Certification.

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Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products, Place Victor Horta 40/40, 1060, Brussels, Belgium.
Culture in vivo ASBL, Rue du Progrès 4, boîte 7, 1400, Nivelles, Belgium.


Following decades in the wilderness, bacteriophage therapy is now appearing as a credible antimicrobial strategy. However, this reemerging therapy does not rekindle without raising sensitive regulatory concerns. Indeed, whereas the European regulatory framework has been basically implemented to tackle ready-to-use pharmaceuticals produced on a large scale, bacteriophage therapy relies on a dynamic approach requiring a regulation on personalized medicine, nonexistent at present. Because of this, no guideline are currently available for addressing the scientific and regulatory issues specifically related to phage therapy medicinal products (PTMP).Pending to the implementation of an appropriate regulatory framework and to the development of ensuing guidelines, several avenues which might lead to PTMP regulatory compliance are explored here. Insights might come from the multi-strain dossier approach set up for particular animal vaccines, from the homologous group concept developed for the allergen products or from the licensing process for veterinary autogenous vaccines. Depending on national legislations, customized preparations prescribed as magistral formulas or to be used on a named-patient basis are possible regulatory approaches to be considered. However, these schemes are not optimal and should thus be regarded as transitional.


Autogenous vaccine; Homologous group; Magistral formula; Multi-strain dossier; Named-patient; Personalized medicine; Phage therapy medicinal product; Regulatory framework

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