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Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Jun;56(6):421-426. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1398328. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

Author information

a Harvard Medical School, Cambridge Health Alliance , Cambridge , MA , USA.
b NSF International , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.
c National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Health Protection Center , Bilthoven , The Netherlands.
d United States Department of Defense , Consortium for Health and Military Performance, Uniformed Services University , Bethesda , MD , USA.
e National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Health Protection Center , Bilthoven , The Netherlands.



The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks.


We designed our study to determine if a new stimulant similar in structure to 1,3-DMAA has been introduced as an ingredient in supplements sold in the United States (US).


We analyzed six brands of supplements that listed an ingredient on the label (e.g., Aconitum kusnezoffii, DMHA or 2-amino-isoheptane) that might refer to an analog of 1,3-DMAA. Supplements were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and reference standards.


Two previously unidentified 1,3-DMAA analogs (2-amino-6-methylheptane [octodrine] and 1,4-dimethylamylamine [1,4-DMAA]) and two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine [1,3-DMBA]) were identified. Octodrine was found at a dose (±95% CI) of 72 ± 7.5 mg per serving. In Europe, octodrine was previously sold as a pharmaceutical in multi-ingredient medications at dosages from 8 to 33 mg. The quantity of octodrine found in our study was more than twice the largest pharmaceutical dose. The other new stimulant, 1,4-DMAA, has not previously been approved for human consumption, and its safety in humans is unknown. 1,4-DMAA was found at dosages between 21 ± 11 mg to 94 ± 48 mg per serving. In addition, two banned stimulants - 1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA - were also identified: 24 ± 7.6 mg to 35 ± 11 mg of 1,3-DMAA and 51 ± 16 mg of 1,3-DMBA. In one product, 24 ± 7.6 mg of 1,3-DMAA was combined with 21 ± 11 mg of 1,4-DMAA. 1,3-DMAA has been investigated as potentially contributing to hemorrhagic strokes and sudden death, whereas the safety of 1,3-DMBA in humans is unknown.


Two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA) and two previously unidentified stimulants (1,4-DMAA and octodrine) were identified in supplements sold in the United States.


Cardiovascular; dietary supplements; weight loss supplements; sports supplements

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