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Mol Cells. 2017 Nov 30;40(11):828-836. doi: 10.14348/molcells.2017.0045. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Visualization of Multicolored in vivo Organelle Markers for Co-Localization Studies in Oryza sativa.

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Division of Integrative Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea.


Eukaryotic cells consist of a complex network of thousands of proteins present in different organelles where organelle-specific cellular processes occur. Identification of the subcellular localization of a protein is important for understanding its potential biochemical functions. In the post-genomic era, localization of unknown proteins is achieved using multiple tools including a fluorescent-tagged protein approach. Several fluorescent-tagged protein organelle markers have been introduced into dicot plants, but its use is still limited in monocot plants. Here, we generated a set of multicolored organelle markers (fluorescent-tagged proteins) based on well-established targeting sequences. We used a series of pGWBs binary vectors to ameliorate localization and co-localization experiments using monocot plants. We constructed different fluorescent-tagged markers to visualize rice cell organelles, i.e., nucleus, plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes, golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and tonoplast, with four different fluorescent proteins (FPs) (G3GFP, mRFP, YFP, and CFP). Visualization of FP-tagged markers in their respective compartments has been reported for dicot and monocot plants. The comparative localization of the nucleus marker with a nucleus localizing sequence, and the similar, characteristic morphology of mCherry-tagged Arabidopsis organelle markers and our generated organelle markers in onion cells, provide further evidence for the correct subcellular localization of the Oryza sativa (rice) organelle marker. The set of eight different rice organelle markers with four different FPs provides a valuable resource for determining the sub-cellular localization of newly identified proteins, conducting co-localization assays, and generating stable transgenic localization in monocot plants.


ECFP; EYFP; GFP; biolistic bombardment; cell organelle markers; co-localization; fluorescent proteins; mRFP; rice; subcellular localization

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