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J Pers Med. 2017 Nov 6;7(4). pii: E15. doi: 10.3390/jpm7040015.

Polymorphisms in FFAR4 (GPR120) Gene Modulate Insulin Levels and Sensitivity after Fish Oil Supplementation.

Author information

1
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. bastien.vallee-marcotte.1@ulaval.ca.
2
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. hubert.cormier.1@ulaval.ca.
3
Endocrinology and Nephrology, CHU de Quebec Research Center, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada. simone.lemieux@fsaa.ulaval.ca.
4
Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. simone.lemieux@fsaa.ulaval.ca.
5
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. patrick.couture@crchul.ulaval.ca.
6
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. iwona.rudkowska@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca.
7
Endocrinology and Nephrology, CHU de Quebec Research Center, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada. iwona.rudkowska@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca.
8
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. marie-claude.vohl@fsaa.ulaval.ca.
9
Endocrinology and Nephrology, CHU de Quebec Research Center, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada. marie-claude.vohl@fsaa.ulaval.ca.

Abstract

The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) (1.9-2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology. Transcript expression levels were measured for 30 participants in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. DNA methylation levels were measured for 35 participants in leukocytes. In silico analyses were also performed. Four gene-diet interactions on fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values were found. rs17108973 explained a significant proportion of the variance of insulin levels (3.0%) and HOMA-IR (2.03%) index values. Splice site prediction was different depending on the allele for rs11187527. rs17108973 and rs17484310 had different affinity for transcription factors depending on the allele. n-3 FAs effectively improve insulin-related traits for major allele homozygotes of four FFAR4 SNPs as opposed to carriers of the minor alleles.

KEYWORDS:

Gene–diet interactions; epigenetics; glycemic control; insulin resistance; nutrigenenomics; omega-3 fatty acids

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