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Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Dec 5;51(23):13545-13567. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b04417. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Aerosol Health Effects from Molecular to Global Scales.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, University of California , Irvine, California 92697, United States.
2
Kyoto University , Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
3
Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University , 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
4
Institute for Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University , 55122 Mainz, Germany.
5
National Institute for Environmental Studies , Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan.
6
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) , Lausanne 1015, Switzerland.

Abstract

Poor air quality is globally the largest environmental health risk. Epidemiological studies have uncovered clear relationships of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) with adverse health outcomes, including mortality by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Studies of health impacts by aerosols are highly multidisciplinary with a broad range of scales in space and time. We assess recent advances and future challenges regarding aerosol effects on health from molecular to global scales through epidemiological studies, field measurements, health-related properties of PM, and multiphase interactions of oxidants and PM upon respiratory deposition. Global modeling combined with epidemiological exposure-response functions indicates that ambient air pollution causes more than four million premature deaths per year. Epidemiological studies usually refer to PM mass concentrations, but some health effects may relate to specific constituents such as bioaerosols, polycyclic aromatic compounds, and transition metals. Various analytical techniques and cellular and molecular assays are applied to assess the redox activity of PM and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Multiphase chemical interactions of lung antioxidants with atmospheric pollutants are crucial to the mechanistic and molecular understanding of oxidative stress upon respiratory deposition. The role of distinct PM components in health impacts and mortality needs to be clarified by integrated research on various spatiotemporal scales for better evaluation and mitigation of aerosol effects on public health in the Anthropocene.

PMID:
29111690
DOI:
10.1021/acs.est.7b04417
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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