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Glia. 2018 Jun;66(6):1138-1159. doi: 10.1002/glia.23248. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Current technical approaches to brain energy metabolism.

Author information

1
Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Valdivia, 5110466, Chile.
2
Instituto de Biologia Funcional y Genomica-CSIC, Universidad de Salamanca, CIBERFES, Salamanca, 37007, Spain.
3
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Département de la Recherche Fondamentale (DRF), Institut de Biologie François Jacob, Molecular Imaging Research Center (MIRCen), CNRS UMR 9199, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.
4
Centre de Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques UMR 5536, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 146 rue Léo-Saignat, Bordeaux, France.
5
School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
6
Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 27, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany.
7
Department of Neurogenetics, Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, Göttingen, D-37075, Germany.
8
School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, University Walk, BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.
9
Baltic Federal University, Kalinigrad, Russian Federation.
10
Molecular Physiology, Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Saarland, Building 48, Homburg, 66421, Germany.
11
Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093.
12
Département de Physiologie, 7 rue du Bugnon, Lausanne, CH1005, Switzerland.
13
Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
14
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
15
Neuroscience Center Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells. Energy metabolism is not just a necessity for proper cell function and viability but plays specific roles in higher brain functions such as memory processing and behavior, whose mechanisms need to be understood at all hierarchical levels, from isolated proteins to whole subjects, in both health and disease. To this aim, the field takes advantage of diverse disciplines including anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, cellular biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, neurology, and mathematical modeling. This article presents a well-referenced synopsis of the technical side of brain energy metabolism research. Detail and jargon are avoided whenever possible and emphasis is given to comparative strengths, limitations, and weaknesses, information that is often not available in regular articles.

KEYWORDS:

in vitro; in vivo; organization level; spatio-temporal resolution

PMID:
29110344
PMCID:
PMC5903992
[Available on 2019-06-01]
DOI:
10.1002/glia.23248
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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