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Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Jan;111:64-70. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.11.002. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Aldehyde levels in e-cigarette aerosol: Findings from a replication study and from use of a new-generation device.

Author information

Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Sygrou 356, Kallithea 17674, Greece; Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rio 26500, Greece. Electronic address:
Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University Brandywine, 25 Yearsley Mill Road, Media, PA 19063, USA.
Enthalpy Analytical, Inc., 800 Capitola Drive, Suite 1, Durham, NC 27713, USA.
Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Sygrou 356, Kallithea 17674, Greece.
Department of Biochemistry-Biotechnology, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Viopolis, Larissa, 41500, Greece.



A recent study identified high aldehyde emissions from e-cigarettes (ECs), that when converted to reasonable daily human EC liquid consumption, 5 g/day, gave formaldehyde exposure equivalent to 604-3257 tobacco cigarettes. We replicated this study and also tested a new-generation atomizer under verified realistic (no dry puff) conditions.


CE4v2 atomizers were tested at 3.8 V and 4.8 V, and a Nautilus Mini atomizer was tested at 9.0 W and 13.5 W. All measurements were performed in a laboratory ISO-accredited for EC aerosol collection and aldehyde measurements.


CE4v2 generated dry puffs at both voltage settings. Formaldehyde levels were >10-fold lower, acetaldehyde 6-9-fold lower and acrolein 16-26-fold lower than reported in the previous study. Nautilus Mini did not generate dry puffs, and minimal aldehydes were emitted despite >100% higher aerosol production per puff compared to CE4v2 (formaldehyde: 16.7 and 16.5 μg/g; acetaldehyde: 9.6 and 10.3 μg/g; acrolein: 8.6 and 11.7 μg/g at 9.0 W and 13.5 W, respectively). EC liquid consumption of 5 g/day reduces aldehyde exposure by 94.4-99.8% compared to smoking 20 tobacco cigarettes.


Checking for dry puffs is essential for EC emission testing. Under realistic conditions, new-generation ECs emit minimal aldehydes/g liquid at both low and high power. Validated methods should be used when analyzing EC aerosol.


Aerosol; Aldehydes; Electronic cigarette; Emissions; Smoking

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