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Int J Med Sci. 2017 Sep 4;14(11):1101-1109. doi: 10.7150/ijms.20104. eCollection 2017.

Selective Killing of Melanoma Cells With Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and p-FAK Antibody Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles.

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Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Republic of Korea.
Department of Korean Internal Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Republic of Korea.
Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea.
Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Republic of Korea.


Melanomas are fast growing high-mortality tumors, and specific treatments for melanomas are needed. Melanoma cells overexpress focal adhesion kinase (FAK) compared to normal keratinocytes, and we sought to exploit this difference to create a selectively lethal therapy. We combined gold nanoparticles (GNP) with antibodies targeting phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK). These conjugates (p-FAK-GNP) entered G361 melanoma cells and bound p-FAK. Treatment with p-FAK-GNP decreased the viability of G361 cells in a time dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. To maximize the preferential killing of G361 cells, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma was used to stimulate the GNP within p-FAK-GNP. Combined treatment with plasma and p-FAK-GNP showed much higher lethality against G361 cells than HaCaT keratinocyte cells. The p-FAK-GNP induced apoptosis over 48 hours in G361 cells, whereas plasma and p-FAK-GNP killed G361 cells immediately. This study demonstrates that combining plasma with p-FAK-GNP results in selective lethality against human melanoma cells.


Focal adhesion kinase; Gold nanoparticles; Melanoma; Non- thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.; Tumor targeting

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