Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2017 Dec;37:72-79. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2017.10.003. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

Novel designs and paradigms to study the placebo response in gastroenterology.

Author information

Department of Internal Medicine, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Institute of Medical Psychology & Behavioral Immunobiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.


The investigation of the placebo and the nocebo effect and their mechanisms has a rather short history of less than 20 years, especially in gastroenterology, and only the last 5 years have resulted in substantial improvement of understanding. Placebo refers to symptom improvement following a treatment, nocebo to the opposite, symptom worsening. Among the factors driving this progress are traditional psychological models derived from learning (conditioning) theory bridging into clinical science, new animal models to investigate the pharmacology of placebo analgesia, and novel study designs to overcome limitations of traditional randomized and placebo-controlled study designs in drug testing. These are explored here for their implementation and application in gastroenterology, with a focus on visceral pain and nausea.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center