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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017 Dec;93:52-61. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2017.10.015. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Comprehensive analysis of polyamine transport and biosynthesis in the dominant human gut bacteria: Potential presence of novel polyamine metabolism and transport genes.

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Ishikawa Prefectural University, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8836, Japan.
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510, Japan.
Ishikawa Prefectural University, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8836, Japan. Electronic address:


Recent studies have reported that polyamines in the colonic lumen might affect animal health and these polyamines are thought to be produced by gut bacteria. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in cells and culture supernatants of 32 dominant human gut bacterial species in their growing and stationary phases. Combining polyamine concentration analysis in culture supernatant and cells with available genomic information showed that novel polyamine biosynthetic proteins and transporters were present in dominant human gut bacteria. Based on these findings, we suggested strategies for optimizing polyamine concentrations in the human colonic lumen via regulation of genes responsible for polyamine biosynthesis and transport in the dominant human gut bacteria.


Gut bacteria; Polyamine biosynthesis; Polyamine transport; Polyamines; Symbiosis

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