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Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 19;66(7):1027-1034. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix940.

Trends in the San Francisco Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic in the "Getting to Zero" Era.

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HIV Epidemiology Section, San Francisco Department of Public Health.
Department of Medicine, University of California.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California.
Bridge HIV, San Francisco Department of Public Health.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California.



San Francisco has launched interventions to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and HIV-associated morbidity and mortality during the San Francisco "Getting to Zero" era. We measured recent changes in HIV care indicators to assess the success of these interventions.


San Francisco residents with newly diagnosed HIV infection, diagnosed from 2009 to 2014, were included. We measured temporal changes from HIV diagnosis to (1) linkage to care in within ≤3 months, (2) initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within ≤12 months, (3) viral suppression within ≤12 months, (4) development of AIDS within ≤3 months, (5) death within ≤12 months, and (6) retention in care 6-12 months after linkage. Kaplan-Meier analyses stratified by year of HIV diagnosis measured time from diagnosis to linkage, ART initiation, viral suppression, AIDS, and death.


Overall, the number of new diagnoses declined from 473 in 2009 to 329 in 2014. The proportion of new diagnoses among men (P = .005), Latinos and Asian/Pacific Islanders (P = .02), and men who have sex with men (P = .003) increased. ART initiation and viral suppression ≤12 months after diagnosis increased (P < .001), while the proportion with AIDS diagnosed ≤3 months after HIV diagnosis declined (P < .001). Time to ART initiation and time to viral suppression were significantly shorter in more recent years of diagnosis (P < .001). Time from HIV to AIDS diagnosis was significantly longer in more recent years (P < .001). Retention in care did not significantly change.


In San Francisco new HIV diagnoses have declined and HIV care indicators have improved during the Getting to Zero era. Continued success requires attention to vulnerable populations and monitoring to adjust programmatic priorities.

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