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Hisp J Behav Sci. 2015 Nov;37(4):560-571. doi: 10.1177/0739986315608126. Epub 2015 Oct 18.

Psychometric Evaluation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 in Hispanic Americans.

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SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology.
San Diego State University.
UCSD Moores Cancer Center.


The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), a screener of psychological distress, in English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic Americans. Hispanic American adults (N = 436) completed the PHQ-4, which yields two subscales (anxiety and depression) that can be summed to create a total score. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate structural validity. The two-factor structure was the best fit to the data for both English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic Americans and items loaded equivalently across groups, demonstrating measurement invariance. Internal consistency reliability was good as measured by coefficient alpha. Construct validity was evidenced by significant expected relationships with perceived stress. These findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the PHQ-4 as a brief measure of psychological distress for English- or Spanish-speaking Hispanic Americans.


Hispanic Americans; Patient Health Questionnaire-4; anxiety; depression; psychometrics

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