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Gut. 2019 Jan;68(1):83-93. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314786. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial.

Author information

1
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
2
Department of Bio and Heath Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
3
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
4
Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
5
Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
6
The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
7
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
8
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
9
Department of Radiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
10
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
11
Research Unit and Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
12
Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
13
Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
14
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
15
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
16
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
17
Laboratory of Genomics and Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
18
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
19
Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
20
Clinical-Microbiomics A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality.

DESIGN:

60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed.

RESULTS:

50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (p<0.0001). Compared with refined grain, whole grain did not significantly alter glucose homeostasis and did not induce major changes in the faecal microbiome. Also, breath hydrogen levels, plasma short-chain fatty acids, intestinal integrity and intestinal transit time were not affected. The whole grain diet did, however, compared with the refined grain diet, decrease body weight (p<0.0001), serum inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.009) and C-reactive protein (p=0.003). The reduction in body weight was consistent with a reduction in energy intake, and IL-6 reduction was associated with the amount of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye.

CONCLUSION:

Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:

NCT01731366; Results.

KEYWORDS:

colonic microflora; diet; immune response; inflammation; obesity

PMID:
29097438
DOI:
10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314786
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Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: MV Lind was partly supported by an unrestricted grant from Cereal Partners Worldwide, a joint venture between Nestlé SA and General Mills Ltd. There were no conflict of interest to declare for the other authors. Intervention products were sponsored by Kohberg, Lantmännen, AXA, Wasa, Urtekram, Finax and Doves Farm. Sponsors of grants and products played no role in the design, methods, data management and analysis nor in the decision to publish.

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