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Eur Heart J. 2018 Mar 7;39(10):853-860. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx596.

Lamin A/C cardiomyopathy: young onset, high penetrance, and frequent need for heart transplantation.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology, Center for Cardiological Innovation, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, PO Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.
2
Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, PO Box 4950, 0424 Oslo, Norway.
3
Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, PO Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.
4
Unit for Cardiac and Cardiovascular Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, PO Box 4956 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

Aims:

Lamin A/C (LMNA) mutations cause familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with frequent conduction blocks and arrhythmias. We explored the prevalence, cardiac penetrance, and expressivity of LMNA mutations among familial DCM in Norway. Furthermore, we explored the risk factors and the outcomes in LMNA patients.

Methods and results:

During 2003-15, genetic testing was performed in patients referred for familial DCM. LMNA genotype-positive subjects were examined by electrocardiography, Holter monitoring, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and echocardiography. A positive cardiac phenotype was defined as the presence of atrioventricular (AV) block, atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), and/or echocardiographic DCM. Heart transplantation was recorded and compared with non-ischaemic DCM of other origin. Of 561 unrelated familial DCM probands, 35 (6.2%) had an LMNA mutation. Family screening diagnosed an additional 93 LMNA genotype-positive family members. We clinically followed up 79 LMNA genotype-positive [age 42 ± 16 years, ejection fraction (EF) 45 ± 13%], including 44 (56%) with VT. Asymptomatic LMNA genotype-positive family members (age 31 ± 15 years) had a 9% annual incidence of a newly documented cardiac phenotype and 61% (19/31) of cardiac penetrance during 4.4 ± 2.9 years of follow-up. Ten (32%) had AV block, 7 (23%) AF, and 12 (39%) non-sustained VT. Heart transplantation was performed in 15 of 79 (19%) LMNA patients during 7.8 ± 6.3 years of follow-up.

Conclusion:

LMNA mutation prevalence was 6.2% of familial DCM in Norway. Cardiac penetrance was high in young asymptomatic LMNA genotype-positive family members with frequent AV block and VT, highlighting the importance of early family screening and cardiological follow-up. Nearly 20% of the LMNA patients required heart transplantation.

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